Dysentery is a contagious disease caused by bacteria of Shigella group. The source of infection is diseased person and bacteria carrier. Infection occurs via infected food, water, objects. Dysenteric microbes are settled in large bowel causing its inflammation, superficial erosion and sores.
Symptoms and course
Incubation period lasts from 1 to 7 days (often 2 -3 days). The disease starts acutely with temperature increase, chills, fever, weakness, loss of appetite. Then do appear pains in abdomen – at the beginning they are dull and are spread throughout the abdomen, further they become more acute.
Pains may occur in lower part of the abdomen, often on the left side, rarely on the right side of the body. Pains usually do increase before infection. Do appear drawing pains in rectum area during dejection and in 5 – 15 after it. During abdomen palpation are noticed spasms and soreness of the colon, mostly frank in sigmoid colon area which is palpated in the form of thick binder.
Bowel movement occurs more often, dejections initially have fecal character, then they have mixture of mucus and blood., then is effused a little amount of mucus with threads of blood. Duration of the disease is from 1 to 9 days.
For the recognition is used data of epidemiological anamnesis. clinical manifestations such as common intoxication, frequent dejection with mucus or blood, cramp-like pains in abdomen in left side. Important role plays rectosigmoidoscopy which helps to detect signs of mucus inflammation in distal areas of rectum. Release of dysenteric microbes during bacteriological examination of excrement proves the diagnosis.
Dysenteric patients may be treated in a contagious hospital and at home as well. It is necessary to take antibiotics such as tetracycline ((0,2-0,3g four times daily), laevomycetin (0,5g four times daily during 6 days).
However, microbes resistance to antibiotics was increased greatly and their effectiveness has reduced. Also are used furasolidone, nitrofurantoin 0.1g four times a day during 5 – 7 days. Vitamins are recommended. In severe cases is made detoxification therapy.
– early detection and treatment
– water-supply source control
– fight with flies
– personal hygiene