What is Angina Pectoris?
Angina pectoris is the medical term for discomfort due to coronary heart disease. It develops you’re your heart muscle doesn’t get as much blood as it needs. This is due to your heart’s arteries becoming narrowed or blocked completely. This condition is also called ischemia.
Angina causes uncomfortable stress, squeezing or pain in the medial region (center) of the chest. You may also feel pain or discomfort in your neck, jaw, shoulder, back or arm. Angina in women can be different than in men and the symptoms can also vary.
Treatment of Angina and New Researches
The main aims of treatment in angina pectoris are to relieve the symptoms, slow the progression of disease, and reduce the chances of heart attack and premature death.
Several treatment options are available for the treatment of sharp pain in chest (angina) with the advancement of medical sciences. Some of them are highlighted here briefly.
- Several clinical trials have shown that the reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level with a beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor is associated with reductions in the mortality rate and major cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease showing symptoms of angina.
- There are trials that show cholesterol-lowering agents to provide the benefits of therapeutic LDL lowering in aged people.
- At least one randomized clinical trial has demonstrated major reduction of symptomatic myocardial ischemia in patients with angina when given doses of statin.
- In a major clinical study, an aggressive cholesterol-lowering technique with atorvastatin 80 mg daily compared to a less-aggressive approach with atorvastatin 10 mg daily resulted in a 2.2% absolute reduction and a 22% relative reduction in the occurrence of a first major cardiovascular event.
- Aggressive non-pharmacological (ie, dietary modification, weight loss, and exercise) and pharmacological treatment combined together show significant benefits in patients with angina and coronary artery disease.
- HDL cholesterol levels are inversely related to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, pharmaceutical agents that increase the HDL level are good targets for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease.
- As compared to the atorvastatin monotherapy, torcetrapib-atorvastatin therapy is found to provide better results. It is found to be associated with a good 61% relative increase in HDL levels and a 20% relative decrease in LDL levels and in an LDL to HDL ratio of less than 1 in patients who had coronary artery disease.
- As found useful in several studies, enteric-coated aspirin at a dose of 81 mg per day should be provided to all patients with stable sharp pain in chest due to coronary artery disease and who have no contraindications to its use.
- Several recent large randomized trials could not demonstrate significant benefits with hormone replacement therapy in the prevention of coronary artery disease and sharp chest pain.
- Beta-blockers are also helpful in relieving the symptoms of angina and in the prevention of ischemic episodes. Beta blockers help in the reduction of myocardial oxygen requirement and thus decrease the heart rate and myocardial contractility.
- Long-acting heart rate-slowing calcium channel blockers can be provided to patients to control the symptoms of angina chest pain in patients with a contraindication to beta-blockers and in cases where symptomatic relief of angina cannot be gained with the use of beta-blockers or nitrates, or both.