Transverse myelitis treatments are designed to address infections that may cause the disorder, reduce spinal cord inflammation, and manage and alleviate symptoms.
Initial treatments and management of the complications of transverse myelitis
- Intravenous corticosteroid drugs may decrease swelling and inflammation in the spine and reduce immune system activity. Such drugs may include methylprednisolone or dexamethasone (usually administered for 3 to 7 days and sometimes followed by a tapering off period). These medications may also be given to reduce subsequent attacks of transverse myelitis in individuals with underlying disorders.
- Plasma exchange therapy (plasmapheresis) may be used for people who don’t respond well to intravenous steroids. Plasmapheresis is a procedure that reduces immune system activity by removing plasma (the fluid in which blood cells and antibodies are suspended) and replacing it with special fluids, thus removing the antibodies and other proteins thought to be causing the inflammatory reaction.
- Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a treatment thought to reset the immune system. IVIG is a highly concentrated injection of antibodies pooled from many healthy donors that bind to the antibodies that may cause the disorder and remove them from circulation.
- Pain medicines that can lessen muscle pain include acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen. Nerve pain may be treated with certain antidepressant drugs (such as duloxetine), muscle relaxants (such as baclofen, tizanidine, or cyclobenzaprine), and anticonvulsant drugs (such as gabapentin or pregabalin).
- Antiviral medications may help those individuals who have a viral infection of the spinal cord.
- Medications can treat other symptoms and complications, including incontinence, painful muscle contractions called tonic spasms, stiffness, sexual dysfunction, and depression.
Following initial therapy, it is critical part to keep the person’s body functioning while hoping for either complete or partial spontaneous recovery of the nervous system. This may require placing the person on a respirator in the uncommon scenario where breathing is significantly affected. Treatment is most often given in a hospital or in a rehabilitation facility where a specialized medical team can prevent or treat problems that afflict paralyzed individuals.
Prevention of future transverse myelitis episodes
Most transverse myelitis only occurs once (called monophasic). In some cases chronic (long-term) treatment with medications to modify the immune system response is needed. Examples of underlying disorders that may require long-term treatment include multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. Treatment of MS with immumodulatory or immunosuppressant medications may be considered when it is the cause of myelitis. These medications include alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, fingomilod, glatiramer acetate, interferon-beta, natalizumab, and teriflunomide, among others.
Immunosuppressant treatments are used for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and recurrent episodes of transverse myelitis that are not caused by multiple sclerosis. They are aimed at preventing future myelitis attacks (or attacks at other sites) and include steroid-sparing drugs such as mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, and rituximab.
Rehabilitative and long-term therapy
Many forms of long-term rehabilitative therapy are available for people who have disabilities resulting from transverse myelitis. Strength and functioning may improve with rehabilitative services, even years after the initial episode. Rehabilitative therapy teaches people strategies for carrying out activities in new ways in order to overcome, circumvent, or compensate for permanent disabilities. Although rehabilitation cannot reverse the physical damage resulting from transverse myelitis, it can help people, even those with severe paralysis, become as functionally independent as possible and attain the best possible quality of life.
Common neurological deficits resulting from transverse myelitis include severe weakness, spasticity, or paralysis; incontinence, and chronic pain. In some cases these may be permanent. Such deficits can substantially interfere with a person’s ability to carry out everyday activities such as bathing, dressing, and performing household tasks. Individuals with lasting neurological defects from transverse myelitis typically consult with a range of rehabilitation specialists, who may include physiatrists (physicians specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation), physical therapists, occupational therapists, vocational therapists, and mental health care professionals.
- Physical therapy can help retain muscle strength and flexibility, improve coordination, reduce spasticity, regain greater control over bladder and bowel function, and increase joint movement. It also can help to reduce the likelihood of pressure sores developing in immobilized areas. Individuals are also taught to use assistive devices such as wheelchairs, canes, or braces as effectively as possible.
- Occupational therapy teaches people new ways to maintain or rebuild their independence by participating in meaningful, self-directed, everyday tasks such as bathing and dressing. Therapists teach people how to function at the highest level possible, by developing coping strategies, suggesting changes in their homes to improve safety (such as installing grab bars in bathrooms), and changing obstacles in their environment that interfere with normal activity.
- Vocational therapy involves offering instructions to help people develop and promote work skills, identify potential employers, and assist in job searches. Vocational therapists act as mediators between employees and employers to secure reasonable workplace accommodations.
- Psychotherapy for people living with permanent includes strategies and tools to deal with stress and a wide range of emotions and behaviors.